Pamela Campa| 08.03.2021FROGEE Policy Brief: Women in Politics: Why Are They Under-represented?
Women are generally under-represented in political offices worldwide, and their under-representation becomes larger in more senior positions.
|Michal Myck|Jesper Roine| 01.10.2020FROGEE Policy Brief: Transition and Beyond: Women on the Labour Market in the Context of Changing Social Norms
In this brief the authors re-examine the developments of gender gaps in the labour market and social norms related to labour market activity.
Sergey Mazol| 02.06.2020Implementation of the principle of gender equality in corporate governance: experience of the Republic of Belarus
This paper is devoted to the study of the concept of responsible investment and the assessment of gender balance in the corporate governance of state-owned companies in Belarus.
| 18.11.2018What Forms Gender Wage Gap in Belarus?
In this paper we focus on estimating the gender difference in wages using data from the Generations and Gender Survey (GGS) conducted in Belarus in 2017. The results show that the average gender wage differential amounts to 22.6%. We use quantile regressions to look at difference in returns at various earnings deciles and then the Oaxaca-Blinder and Juhn-Murphy-Pierce decomposition techniques to define the components that form the wage gap. We find that the adjusted gender pay gap is mostly formed by the difference in rewards rather than personal characteristics. The gap increases throughout the wage distribution and accelerates at the top deciles indicating presence of a strong glass ceiling effect
| 14.09.2018Women in Belarus’ Business: features, motivation and barriers
This policy paper looks at who are women in Belarus’ business, are there any gender differences that impact on the effectiveness and successfulness of business. The study also analyses the external and internal factors that impede business development and motives to enter business. The main barriers that face women entrepreneurs are related to the quality of the functioning entrepreneurial ecosystem. However, equally important role is played by the preservation of the traditional division of social roles in terms of household work and childcare sharing. As the results show, the majority of female business owners no longer perceive as a norm the current state of affairs.
| 10.12.2016Current Gender Trends in Belarusian Labor Market: Wage Gap, Child Penalty and Marriage Premium
The issue of gender equality in Belarus labor market is still unclear. On the one hand the rate of female participation is high. At the same time there is evidence of the rising gender pay gap that grew from 16.5% in 2005 to 24% in 2014. The decomposition of the wage gap during 2005- 2014 time period using Oaxaca-Blinder, Juhn-Murphy-Pierce and Machado-Mata techniques revealed that differences in income function (the difference in a way efforts of men and women are remunerated) are the main factors affecting the growth of gender inequality, while the personal characteristics are losing the influencing power. The role of the factors differs depending on the quantile of income distribution. I also find no association between wages and marriage for females, while there is a 10.5% wage premium in case of married males. The parenthood wage penalty is attributed to women and equals approximately 14.4%. Moreover, children from 0 to 6 provide the most severe drop in wages. In addition, the paper reveals that educated women are suffering the most and face 20.4% decline in wages, while penalty for women with the secondary school or lower amounts to just 8%.